The ankle is a "hinged" joint capable of moving the foot in two primary directions:
away from the body (plantar flexion) and toward the body (dorsiflexion). It is formed by the meeting of three bones. These provide stability to the ankle joints, which function as weight-bearing joints for the body during standing and walking.
Ligaments on each side of the ankle also provide stability by tightly strapping the outside of the ankle (lateral malleolus) with the lateral collateral ligaments and the inner portion of the ankle (medial malleolus) with the medial collateral ligaments. The ankle joint is surrounded by a fibrous joint capsule. Tendons that attach the large muscles of the leg to the foot wrap around the ankle both from the front and behind. The large tendon (Achilles tendon) of the calf muscle passes behind the ankle and attaches at the back of the heel. A large tendon of the leg muscle (posterior tibial tendon) passes behind the medial malleolus. The peroneal tendon passes behind the lateral malleolus to attach into the foot.
The normal ankle has the ability to move the foot, from the neutral right-angle position to approximately 45 degrees of plantar flexion and to approximately 20 degrees of dorsiflexion. The powerful muscles that move the ankle are located in the front and back portions of the leg. These muscles contract and relax during walking
Pain in the heel can result from a number of factors.
Abnormalities of the skin, nerves, bones, blood vessels, and soft tissues of the heel can all result in pain.
Because of walking and daily movement, we are always at risk for injury or trauma to the heel area. Common causes of pain in the heel include blisters and corns.
Plantar fasciitis, inflammation of the "bowstring-like" tissue in the sole of the foot stretching from the heel to the front of the foot, is one condition commonly associated with heel pain.
Sometimes diseases that affect other areas of the body, like peripheral vascular disease or arthritis, can also result in pain in the foot or heel.
Sever's disease is a cause of heel pain in children that results from injury to the growth plate of the heel bone.
Treatments for heel pain depend on the particular cause